Ans 1 : Values are motivating factors in human behavior. They provide a basis for judgment, discrimination, and analysis, and it is these qualities, that make intelligent choices possible between alternatives. Values grow out of human interest and desires. Values are responses to stimuli. Going to the musical concert, listening to music gives pleasure. These things are stimuli, and our response is one of enjoyment. Hence the value in these experiences is or satisfaction. Values give meaning to life. They give direction through the importance placed on objects, situations, and ways of doing things.
DEFINITION: “A VALUE IS A CONCEPTION, EXLPICIT OR IMPLICIT, DISTINCTIVE OF AN INDIVIDUAL OR CHARACTERISTIC OF A GROU, OF THE DESIRABLE WHICH INFLUENCES THE SELECTION FROM THE AVAILABLE MODES, MEANS, AND ENDS OF ACTION.”
A Value is always important to the person who holds it. It is desirable and satisfying. It has the ability to develop in a self-creative way, and it tends to endure.
Ans 2 : Choice making in a family always takes place within a given society and within a cultural and historic period. Different value patterns of the social group bring pressures that cannot be escaped easily. All of us as individuals and as members of families develop some pattern of values. These patterns differ from one another. The values held are related to the time and situation. Living is a continuous process of choice making, of foregoing one value for another. Out of this life of choice – deciding and weighing of consequences- a system of values grows which, as time goes on, is modified and changed with new experiences.
Ans 3 :Types of values The basically motivating values of human behavior, according to Parker, are listed below. Comfort Health Ambition Love ‘desire for knowledge Technological satisfaction Play Art Religion Values are classified into two: Intrinsic and Instrumental The values listed here are given in a positive sense. Many have opposite or negative connotations and motivations. for example , the negative of beauty is not the lack of it but ugliness, the negative of ambition is not lack of it but indifference, the negative of religion is not lack of it but evil. Values may be classified in various ways. An intrinsic value is one that is important and desirable simply for its own sake. It is worthy of being sought for itself alone. Art and its interest in beauty is an intrinsic value. The love of man and woman, or of father and son, is an expression of beauty in human relationship. An instrumental value is a means of attaining other values or goals. Technological satisfaction- interest in making objects based on skillful workmanship- is primarily an instrumental value because it is sought primarily as a means to an end. Some values possess both intrinsic and instrumental worth. They are in some measure means to other values. Comfort, health ambition, love, knowledge, play, art, religion are intrinsic and instrumental. All values are interdependent, intimately related and help guide the conduct of individuals and family members.
What are the values according to NCERT ?
The following is the list of 83 values given in NCERT Publication, compiled by Goel
2. Anti touchability
3. Consideration for others
5. sense of social responsibility
7. Spirit of enquiry
8. Common good
10. Democratic decision making
11. Dignity of the individual
16. Forward look
22. Kindness to animals
24. National consciousness
25. National integration
32. Social justice
33. Self help
34. Self confidence
35. Self study
36. Self control
37. Social service
38. Sense of discrimination between good and bad
41. team work
43. universal truth
44. value for national and civic property
45. appreciation of cultural values of others
47. concern for others
49. common cause
53. dignity of manual work
58. good manner
61. hygienic living
64. loyalty to duty
65. national unity
68. proper utilization of time
70. quest for knowledge
72. reverence for old age
73. simple living
74. self discipline
75. self respect
76. self support
77. self reliance
78. self restraint
79. solidarity of mankind
80. team spirit
82. universal love
Ans 4 : Values can be classified into several categories: such as Economic Values , social value, political value, spiritual value, modern value ,eternal value, etc.
There are certain virtues common to all religions like Hindu, Sikh, Jain, Buddha, etc.
Such forty values are enumerated below:-
5. Non-accumulation of things
8. Austerity( enduring hardship for discharging one’s religious obligations)
9. Scriptual study- study of sacred books Repetition of divine names
10. Devotion to God
11. Spiritual wisdom
14. Control of the senses
16. Piety( faith in Vedas),purity
19. Compassion (karma)
21. Arjava(simple living)
23. Amanitva (it consists in not seeking honor, respect, or homage for oneself and observes gentlemanliness
24. Freedom from hypocracy- hypocricy consists of putting up a false show of piety and purity
25. Absence of backbiting spirit
26. Straight forwardness
27. Huminility ( this is antonym of boasting meaning to have very high estimate of oneself)
28. Fortitude- it means not to be perturbed in the face of greatest difficulty and danger
29. Spirit of service- it indicates to many values like concern for others, co-operation, compassion, fellow-feeling, helpfulness, humanism, etc.
30. Satsang (good company)-association with saints and holy men
31. Japa- muttering or repetition of a name of God or of a “mantra”
32. Meditation- concentration of a mind on a form of God
33. Freedom from malice-entertaining no enmity even towards an enemy
35. Even mindedness(equality)
36. Absence of egoism(absence of “I ” in respect of body, mind , intellect
37. Friendliness(universal love towards all creatures)
38. Charity ( supplying that which is needed in a particular person, gladly and respectfully)
39. Devotion to duty-it includes values like “sincerity”, ”integrity”, ’honesty, loyalty” to duty etc.
40. Tranquility- this state is attained when the mind is completely free from desires.
Ans 5 : A value system refers to beliefs, expectations, and preferences that offer direction and influence choice. But value is an integrating or unifying dimension of the self. It is the quality that renders the person whole in the concrete moments of life.
To quote Rath, Harmin and Simon,
Persons have experiences, they grow and learn. Out of experiences, and preferences may arise certain general guides to behavior. These guides tend to give direction to life and may be called values. As an individual you may have numerous values that have developed over the years. As you have grown and matured you have matured, you have refined and evaluated the values you have until they have become an integral part of you. Values play an important role in all aspects of your management.
Write short note on Goals.
Goal means your aim or desire. What is a goal? From where does it originate- Are the basic questions. Goals, like values play an important role in your life. Values give meaning to our life. Goals, on the other hand, point the direction you want your path to follow. Thus values and goals are inter-related. Values are the vehicles and goals are the highways you use to attain your desired quality of life. Goals are what you are striving to attain or achieve. Right now your goals are to successfully complete your course, to graduate from college and to obtain a job in your chosen profession. As you achieve these goals, new ones will emerge which will lead you down still other highways. Everyone has goals. We may not be fully aware of these goals nor are they always clearly defined or throughout, but they do exists. The concept of goals
Goals are nothing more than the ends that individuals or families are willing to work for. They are more definite than values because they are to be accomplished. Many goals grow out of desires, philosophies, attitudes and values. Goal setting is a continual process. Goals are related to standards and values.
Ans 6 :
There are three types of goals
i. Long term goals
ii. Intermediate or short term goals
iii. Means end goals( means end goals)
The long term goals are considered fairly permanent. They are sought over long periods of time and consequently are ever present. These are the goals that have real meaning to the family group.
Families often set intermediate goals or short term goals for themselves as means of achieving long term goals. These intermediate goals are more definite than long term goals and it is easier to form a clear-cut picture of them. The means-end goals are the lesser goals. They are the decisions made or the steps taken to attain intermediate goals. There are many means-end goals that are ends in themselves and that are reached with a small number of activities.
Ans 7 : Values may also be classified according to their ability to satisfy human needs. The most widely known method of classifying values by human needs was developed in Maslow’s hierarchy of needs.
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs divide values into five categories or needs. These are
3) Love and belonging
4) Self esteem
5) Self actualization
These categories encompass the physical, psychological and emotional needs for human wellbeing. Satisfaction of these needs occurs in a chronological ordering.
Unfortunately many people are not truly aware of their own value hierarchy nor the extent to which their value structure affects their lives. The increasing awareness of values, value structure and scope of valuing enables you to better understand your own actions, decision making, and behavior we can better understand the actions of other people.
Ans 8 : A Value conflict occurs when two or more values come into opposition with each other .An example of a value conflict you may well have experienced might occur during a test when a friend asks you to give him or her a answer to a question in final examination. Your value of friendship would be in opposition to your value of honesty. In resolving the conflict you basically weigh your values –honesty and friendship- and you take action based on the decision you made.
Values make you uniquely you. When a value conflict occurs, you are eventually forced to make a choice. As you make a choice you are evaluating and redefining each of the opposing values. As this occurs you are continuing to refine individual values and your value hierarchy.
Values furnish the guiding compass for everyone’s life, providing the basis for deciding what is more worthwhile and what is less so. They are the “why” guideposts. They help us decide our actions.