Factors Motivating

Introduction: The importance of management lies in the fact that the underlying basic things are realization of values, goals and standards. Family goals are considered as the focal point of the management process. Values and goals are important factors in living a full creative life. His choices among the many courses of action are determined by his values. Standards are scales for comparison. The three aspects of motivation in management i.e. values, goals and standards are closely related to each other. Values are the key term of Triology. From values stem the other two aspects goals and standards. The inter-relationship of the three terms is illustrated below:

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Values:

Man is a valuing creature. He needs goals and principles by which to direct life and to shape his conduct.

(a) Concept:

Values are those deep-seated beliefs and desires that give direction to life. Values are motivating factors that influence our behavior. In our life we give more importance to certain things, we value certain things e.g. love, friendship, loyalty etc. The word “value” is used in different context for example moral value, aesthetic value, instrumental value and ethical value. We can define “values” as the things in Life that one considers right, desirable or worthwhile. For example, a person who appreciates beauty, highly, has it as one of his values.

A value is always important to the person who holds it; it is desirable and satisfying. Our values affect our behavior; judgment and analysis in dealing with problems. The main values that govern man’s conduct are as follows:

1. Love: The basis of all human relationship.
2. Health: Physical & mental well being.
3. Comfort: Agreeable conditions for living.
4. Ambition: Success in achievement.
5. Knowledge and wisdom: search for truth.
6. Technological interest or efficiency in work: Skillful workmanship.
7. Play: Creative and imaginative activity.
8. Art: Interest in beauty, art, etc.
9. Religion: unifying aspect of our life.

The basic motivating values of human behavior listed above are given by Parker. A list of 83 values is given in NCERT publication and complied by Shri. Goel. Some of the values given in the list are Co-operation, Sympathy, Endurance, Friendship, Honesty, Peace, Punctuality, Respect, Sincerity, Self-confidence, Team work, Truthfulness, Cleanliness, Courage, Equality, Kindness, Regularity, Tolerance and Universal love.

Values can be classified into several categories: such as Economic values, Social values, Political values, Modern values, Ethical values, Religious values etc.

Characteristics of Values:

The basic motivating values of human behavior listed above are given by Parker. A list of 83 values is given in NCERT publication and complied by Shri. Goel. Some of the values given in the list are Co-operation, Sympathy, Endurance, Friendship, Honesty, Peace, Punctuality, Respect, Sincerity, Self-confidence, Team work, Truthfulness, Cleanliness, Courage, Equality, Kindness, Regularity, Tolerance and Universal love.

Values are difficult to describe but these can be identified through the choice we make and our behavior pattern. The characteristics are stated as follows:

1. A value is very important to the person who holds it

2. Value is a decisive factor in determining attitudes, which helps in taking major decisions in life.

3. Values are somewhat unstable and always in the process of change.

They may get modified due to circumstances e.g. advancing age, new knowledge, changes in society.

4. Such modifications tend to be very slow but may affect the priorities in a person’s value system.

5. A value may remain constant. Everyone tries to develop his/her own set of values suitable to him/her.

It has the ability to develop in a self-creative way.

6. Values may be studied and measured. Examples of quantitative measurements are expressions

such as ‘much more’, ‘very much’, ‘more’ and ‘less’ or choices between paired values or weighing of

values by   priorities.

7. It is the quality or desirability of idea, object or action which governs our choices of methods, modes or goals of action.

Sources of Values:

Values grow out of human interests and desires. They are the product of interaction between an individual and some object or situation in his environment. Values determine the goals that give direction to the management of resources. Some values are referred to as ideals that find their place in the individual’s value system. Following are the sources of values. Values and their expression vary from culture to culture. The society in which you live as a child and now as an adult plays an important role in shaping and molding the values. Some originated from cultural heritage while others from the neighborhood and community in which we live.

Family : Parents through their actions and words, demonstrate their values. For example, as a young child you were told to, “tell the truth”, “its wrong to steal”, “do not lie or cheat” or “respect elders” etc. These and similar statements made by parents developed into such values as honesty, truthfulness and respect for others.

School : As one grows older, interaction with friends and school environment provides opportunity to see other people’s value. This interaction helps in determining individual values.

Religion : Religion is a source of spiritual values. For many people religion provides a comprehensive, unifying philosophy of life, the value underlying all things.

Experience : Many values come from everyday experiences. Our value hierarchy will be dependent upon many factors. For example, input you receive from the spheres of interaction, friends, classmates, and the experiences you have in day to day life. Situations that affect directly or indirectly will also bring about a reordering of your value structure. Since you are a student, education and intelligence are two of your values. Currently each has a high priority.

Thus, values come from many sources including the culture, religion, the family and the peer group and above all your own experiences from varied situations. In short, these values are “learned” not only through the family and one’s peers but also through educational, social and work experiences. Books, newspapers, television, e-books, websites, movies, art and other media provide significant value-laden experiences.

Types of Values:

Individually held values can be classified in a number of different ways. Values may be classified by clusters, intrinsic or extrinsic or according to human needs.

Thus a single value, although it may be a part of a cluster on occasion, may also be either intrinsic or extrinsic. Here we discuss intrinsic and extrinsic values.

Values are classified as Intrinsic and Extrinsic values.

1) An Intrinsic value : is one that is important and desirable simply for its own sake. It is worthy of being sought for itself. Intrinsic values stand alone and represent strong values that are important in themselves. They originate from philosophy of life of an family or individual and vice versa.

2) An Extrinsic value : is a means of attaining other values or goals. These are sometimes called an instrumental values. These may also be strong values but they help, aid or assist an intrinsic value. For example, you value intelligence and education and your goal is pursuing higher education. In this case, intelligence is intrinsic value and in order to achieve that goal other values are sincerity, punctuality, hard work, regularity in attending class, concentration in studies are instrumental or extrinsic values. In short attainment of your goals many other values are also important.