Goals are the desires that individuals or families are willing to work for. They are more definite and clear than values because they are to be accomplished. They are tangible things, objects, ends or purposes. Goal is an objective or purpose to be attained. They are specific ways of realizing the values one hold.

At present, your goals are to complete your courses and obtain higher degree so as to get job in your chosen profession. As each of these goals are achieved, new goals, will emerge leading to other higher goals in your life.

Goals, like values, play an important role in your life. Values give meaning to your life. Goals on the other hand, point the direction you want your path to follow. Thus it can be said that values and goals are inter-related. Values are the vehicles and goals are the highways you use to attain your desired quality of life.

Using kitchen as a selected area of the house, the concept of values, goals and standards can be illustrated as follows.


If you value health your goal would be maintaining good health which is dictated by scientific standards of nutritional requirements, quantitative and qualitative, as well as the set standards of exercises. If the goals are fulfilled then we realize the values and we derive the ultimate value satisfaction.

Definition: Goal is defined as an objective, condition or something you desire to achieve or attain at any given period or time or point.

In determining goals one chooses a path or direction which one intends to follow. Everyone has goals. Sometimes we may not be fully aware of these goals but they do exist.


Types of Goals:

Goals are classified under the following heads.

A) According to the number of groups : Individual and Group Goals :

1) Individual goals are established by an individual for himself. These are based on his own values. He puts in efforts for their achievement and receives satisfaction to himself, for example scoring 70% marks in the examination.

2) Group goals are established by the group. These are based on the some of the common values and interests of the group members, for example, achievement of 100% result of the class at the S.S.C. examination, or building a house. Each and every group member works hard for the achievement of such goals. The role of the group leader becomes an important one in motivating each group member.


B) According to duration for achievement of goals

Throughout life each individual an each family is always seeking some objectives.

According to duration for achievement:

1.Short-term goals

In short term goal, the period of attainment of goal is short. The short range goal represents an objective, condition or something you intend to achieve in the immediate future. An example of short-range goal would be to successfully complete this course of study. Since the achievement is anticipated in the near future, these goals usually involve a time period of six months or less. When you say that ‘I have to get my project done within two months’, in reality these are short-term goals. These goals tend to revolve around a single objective, condition or item.

2.Intermediate goals

Intermediate goals are nothing but the link connecting between short term and long term goals. They have definite characteristics and serve a purpose in your life time achievement. The time duration involved in intermediate goals is longer than short term goals. Achievement of these goals is measured in terms of several months or years. For example, to complete your graduation you will require few years. During this course of study it is difficult to make out a class schedule for entire duration. They may not be so clearly defined as short term goals. Like short term goals, these intermediate goals may assist you in attaining long term goals.


3.Long term goal

The duration in achieving this goal is long. Classification differs from the other two, in regard to the time period, the degree of specificity and the extent of active implementation involved in attainment. Long term goals are those you have set for yourself in the distant future. Long term goals may include one or more of the following – getting a good job in chosen profession, getting married, owning home or farm etc. These are not easily defined because you are not aware of your job, your employer, your place of work, your residence etc.

iii) Means-end goals

The means-end goals are the lesser goals. They are the decisions made or the steps taken to attain intermediate goals. There are many means-end goals that are ends in themselves and that are reached with a smaller number of activities. For example, when a woman wishes to keep her home attractive, she sets an intermediate goal for herself. To achieve this goal, she sweeps, dusts, cleans floors, arranges the furniture and the like. By combining these means-end activities, she attains her intermediate goal.