Management is and means “using resources in order to achieve goals. It is planning, controlling, and evaluation of resources in order to achieve goals. Through the management process one can purposefully and actively seek those goals that will enable you to attain your desired quality of life. The use of the management process also aids you to maximize the use of your resources and the achievement of your goals will yield a higher degree of positive satisfaction. The outcome of the management process enhances one’s sense of wellbeing, affords the opportunity to assess your roles, and increases the probability of achieving a higher degree of positive satisfaction. Management is a learned skill; it involves planning, implementation, and evaluative feedback.
The first phase in the management process is planning. Planning involves establishing the sequence and organization. It means a direction is established, the sequence and organization are established, and a plan emerges which will lead to achieving the goal you have set.
The second phase in the management process is implementation. Here one is actually putting the plan into action or carrying out the plan into action. As this takes place one is controlling, checking, and adjusting the plan.Evaluative feedback, the final phase is important. As you evaluate the feedback, you identify those parts of the plan which one’s should be changed or modified if the plan is used again.
All the three steps are very important.
Planning is the first step. Planning is nothing but a series of Decisions. When we plan the things we literally make choices from among various alternatives. The success of planning step is vital to the management process. According to Deacon and Firebaugh ,” since management cannot occur unless there is a plan of some nature- written or unwritten, general or specific- planning is a necessary function for guiding actions in meeting the demands the family.”
The need to develop a plan is derived from a felt need to resolve a problem, achieve a specific goal, or to satisfy a demand. Regardless of which one is actually taking place, this is the input you are receiving.
Types of Planning
Some plans are devised with the anticipation they will not be used or repeated at any time in the future.
These are developed with the anticipation they will be repeatedly used when the need arises.These plans are important to management. Single use plans may deal with the major events such as planning the fiftieth wedding anniversary celebration for parents or grandparents. Repeat- use plans may also be referred to as standing plans.
LEVELS OF PLANNING
All planning does not occur at the same level. Burk found planning can be divided into the levels of master planning, operational planning and day-to-day planning. Master planning can be viewed as the planning that occurs as objectives and goals are established and policies are created. It is used to identify the goals and objectives of your desired quality of life, or the direction you intend for your life. In addition to master plan there are operational plans and day-to-day plans. Day-to-day planning involves those continuously repetitious actions we undertake. Daily time plan is the example of day- to –day planning whereas which job is to be carried out at what time is the example of operational planning. Cottage plan for the whole class is the example of master plan. Another example is of University examination schedule for summer or winter, for all the faculties, first and third year examination in the first phase and second year examination in the second phase. Daily time table for morning and afternoon shift is the example of day-to-day plan where as conducting examination, distributing question papers, supplements, collecting answer sheets, arranging answer sheets roll number wise, sealing bundles of answer sheets etc. are the examples of operational planning.
Similarly any example of activity can be taken. Each day we are carrying out various activities. Day-to-day planning enables to use time and energy for other efforts rather than in planning daily activities.
Planning includes developing a sequence of actions or behavior designed to meet the demand.
As a phase of the planning component of the management process sequencing involves identifying tasks, actions, or behavior necessary to meet the demand. Later, these must be placed in a logical order. As we identify the tasks, actions, or behaviors we have assess the length of time needed to complete each. It involves identifying the actions necessary to meet the demand
The procedure of ordering commences when sequencing terminates. The logical order of activities is established. During implementation of the plan standards will be used to measure the forward progress of the plan. Ordering of the activities differs from person to person. When other people are involved in performing the activities continuous and on-going flow of communication is required. Ordering involves establishing not only the logical order for completion but also making certain that the needed resources are available when they are required and in sufficient quantity to meet the standards they have established.
Both sequencing and ordering are vital to the planning component if the plan is to be obtained.
CONTROLLING OR IMPLEMENTATION
This is the second phase of management process. It is nothing but putting the plan in to action. This involves the phases of controlling the action, checking the progress, and adjusting the plan where and when necessary. As shown in figure the emphasis of this component is the forward movement of the plan to meet the demand. In order to do this, action is taking place. At the same time, the two other phases of implementation are also occurring. At other times, only one or two are involved. Each of these phases, however, is vital to the implementation component of the management process.
During implementation, three different phases may be taking place almost simultaneously. “Controlling” is the actual “doing” of the previously established ordering of actions or behavior are undertaken, standards are being observed. The main responsibility is the “doing” of the action. The activity is directed to the completion of actions or behaviors.
Checking the progress
Checking progress is the examination of action. There are two distinct types of checking – planned and unplanned-In this the checking is done whether the action is taking place in accordance with the established plan. The checking phase serves the function of providing us with information. Through checking we will be able to identify where and if any changes in the plan are needed. The progress of checking is done objectively.