1. INTRODUCTION TO MANAGEMENT
Introduction: The meaning of management is working out of a plan in a systematic way. It is certainly an art of doing work in an effective and efficient manner. Every day we are carrying out different types of activities so as to meet our demands. Each activity is carried in a systematic way i.e. by means of planning, controlling and evaluating things. Throughout life, continual interaction takes place between the individual and his environment. From the beginning, man had to find ways of dealing with the effect of these forces upon himself. Because he was unable to do this with his own physical equipment alone, he was forced to create tools and methods of various kinds to assist him. Man has developed a complex technological environment. Man, today, may be said to stand in the midst of a three dimensional environment: natural, human and technological.
The term ‘Home Management’ was coined by Maria Parloa in 1880. When she first used the term, it simply meant anything that needed to be accomplished within the household. As this discipline began to develop, the specific fields of study began to emerge. The principles and concepts of home management began to emerge. The definition of what home management is and how it is used in daily life took on new directions and meaning. Every individual has values, goals and standards. Effective management means recognizing values, understanding decision making and factors affecting decision making, determining long term and short term goals as well as allocating resources to attain these goals.
As it is rightly said by Nickell and Dorsey in their book titled ‘Management in Family Living’, that human needs and desires change through time; research and progress, new tools, new substances, and new sources of power are discovered and created, and new methods are devised for meeting these needs and wants. The shelter and protection provided by the home, family, the equipments and machinery that enable us to prepare and conserve food, the tools that save time and human energy, the public and private conveyances such as trains, automobiles, airplanes etc. provide rapid and easy transportation & communication through radio, television, electronic devices, computers, internet facility, fax, e-mail etc. provide speedy transmission of information.
The impact of these changes upon the human being gives rise to conflicts because man tend to accept new procedures, new equipment and new products in his technological environment more readily than he accepts changes in his personal life. In adjusting to the new technological changes, social and cultural changes lag behind, with the result that a constant effort is made on the part of people to bring the two together. Here, the discussion about the Family Resource Management or Home Management focuses on the meaning and definition of management.
Definition and Meaning:
The meaning of management is working out of a plan in mental or written Form in a systematic way. It is certainly an act of doing work in an effective and efficient manner. In a family or any organization, we tend to carry different types of work, jobs and activities in order to achieve family or institutional goals. Resources are utilized in a proper manner, in order to achieve these goals. Thus each activity is being carried out in a very systematic way i.e. by means of planning, controlling and evaluation.
In a very simple way ‘Management’ is defined as ‘using what you have in order to get what you want’. Here, in this definition, ‘what you have’ means the resources at your disposal and ‘what you want’ means the goals.
Management is a process which utilizes resources in order to accomplish individual or family goals.
‘Management is or means a process consisting of three steps – planning, implementing and evaluating use of resources in order to attain desired goals’.
Basic Concept of Management:
In general terms the concept ‘Management’ may be said to be a planned activity directed toward accomplishing desired ends. It involves weighing of values and the making of decisions. Everyone learns to manage the resources. Some people learn to manage well, whereas some are unable to do so. The degree of competence varies from person to person.
Concept of Management:
Management plays important role in day-to-day life. Each individual needs to have knowledge of managing activities. It is integral part of human life. Family life is ful of various goals and achievements whether it is an individual goal or achievement or a family goal. Most of time it is essential for family members to take wise deciseions regarding education, career, marriage of members in the family depending on their values and goals.
There are specifically two concepts of management. The one is materialistic concept and the second is the Human concept.
(1) Human Concept:
Here emphasis has been given to all round development of the family members. Maximum use of available resources is made on each member of the family. Importance is given to human needs. Instead of taking paid help, the homemaker cooks food for the family, with special care. In case of emergency the homemaker use to simplify work by using shortcut methods of cooking or changing the menu. While doing this, many times, standards have been adjusted to suit the changing situation. Effective use of available resources, human as well as non-human, affects the quality of life.
(2) Materialistic Concept:
According to the materialistic concept of home management the efficiency in doing work and standardization of work is important. By doing this quality of work is improved and more perfection is maintained. Homemakers or managers try to maintain the standard for maintaining standard they spend more money. For example, if the woman working outside she will prefer paid help for getting the work done as per the family standards.
If the family is having very high standard of cleanliness, i.e. cleaning of the house twice a day, she will take paid help to complete the work. The importance given to the standard of work is mainly highlighted. In other words, it is a process consisting of planning, organizing, implementing (controlling), evaluating and accomplishing stated objectives by the use of resources.
a) Human Concept of Management
b) Materialistic Concept of Management
Nature and Role of Management in a changing world:
Management plays an important role in everyday life. The society as well as the family has undergone a number of changes over the years. A family today is a lot more different than it was in the olden days. The family is a basic unit of the society. Family consists of two or more people staying together in the same household who are related to each other by blood, marriage or adoption. As soon as the family is established and people begin to work for common purpose, need for formulating a plan of action arises. Now-a-days number of nuclear families is increasing comparing to joint families of olden days. In nuclear families there is great work and time demand. The demands on time and energy of homemaker are increasing because of her dual role i.e. in family and at the job place.
The world is changing fast. Due to progress in science and technology, the family life is also changing. Housewives started making use of time and labor saving devices. The technological advancements have also brought in a number of changes in the materials and manufacturing process of goods used at home that affect their use and care.
Many people are gaining employment as a result of industrialization which simultaneously increasing their standard of living. It also resulted in mass production of goods and articles widening the choice of selection while making purchases. The market place is full of ready to eat food items which help conserve time and energy of employed homemaker. The other developments like advanced medical science, new technology in Medical Field has increased the general lifespan of human beings.
Such changes in the structure of the society, science, technology, computer technology, advancement in communication technology, population explosion, unemployment etc. affects the family life and simultaneously affecting management of resources. Family members need to cope up with such resources. Management helps to adapt these changes. To get maximum satisfaction and achieve family goals effective use of human and non-human resources is vital. Management teaches us how effectively such resources can be used.
Management is concerned with the ways in which a family uses all its resources and with the quality of life resulting from that management. Day-by-day the environment has become more complex and resources are more varied. Thus families are increasingly confronted with many possible uses for their resources and they recognize that the alternatives they choose will affect not only themselves but the larger community as well.
“Management in the home is a part of the fabric of living. Its threads are interwoven because decisions for the use of resources are made, whether the family is art work or play”.
Throughout the nation there are family units in various developmental stages of the life cycle. Some of these family units follow the traditional concept of the family unit. Not all families fit into this traditional mode. These families have special characteristics that necessitate different modifications and adjustments in the managerial actions and behaviors. The prime casual factor is the changing status of one or more family members. In the dual income family, both parents are employed outside the shelter sphere. The single parent family results from the permanent absence of one parent. Physical impairment of a family member produces the handicapped family unit. The aging family emerges with the passage of time and retirement from occupational endeavors. Each of these family units has an impact upon society. Their differences lie in the use of the principles and concepts of management.
The society in which the management is undertaken has changed in the past few year. It will change in the future. Advancing technology will continue to have a tremendous impact upon society. Today there is an almost instantaneous communication network. This network allows to see and to hear what is taking place almost anywhere in the world. To be previously completed manually by the physical efforts have been eliminated. This has created new positions requiring different skills and abilities.
As these changes occurred, individual and family managerial actions were adjusted and modified.
Need of Home Management in Day to Day Life:
Home Management is the process of properly maintaining a home and overseeing necessary household activities. Controlling and evaluating effective Home Management helps us to do things in an organized manner.
The increasing wants of individuals are constantly changing as they are confronted with the wide variety of choices. Choice making is very difficult. Every time we are taking decisions and making choice by selecting one best alternative from many alternatives. The home maker or home manager is the chooser of commodities, goods and services to satisfy family wants and adviser of choice making in the family. Wise buying practices, proper selection of items, plays an important role. Many decisions of what and how to buy can be made before purchase actually takes place. We are all consumers. We consume things, goods and services in order to achieve our goals and also for our livelihood. We buy things. The consumer in the market is at the center of the consumer buyer function. The acquisition of knowledge of quality, grades and standards is part of the responsibility of an intelligent consumer buyer. Effectiveness in management will demand some acquaintance with the problem of selection of utility items or any other type of choice making. Here the knowledge regarding fair-trade practice, consumer laws, standardization of goods and food items etc. is necessary. The woman as a mother and a consumer-buyer has some responsibility for training future consumers – members of the family. The knowledgeable consumer not only learns the art and science of good purchasing but develops management of all important activities and functions in the home. In the modern home each member is considered a right of his/her own. The changes in modern life are reflected in the management of the home. The present day family is forced to consider its need carefully to choose wisely if it wishes to get the greatest return from its resources. Family participation in decisions about resources is essential for successful management in the modern home. Most people look upon management as a way of life. They see the home made up of human beings living together in an environment of love and affection and concerned with the quality of human association. In this concept management becomes a means of using resources for the attainment of family goals.
Now-a-days families are experiencing many demands on Resources. The decisions concerning the allocation of resources will be influenced by anticipation of future demands. Present goals will be achieved and other goals will emerge to take their place. Management takes place on a daily basis. It is a continuous process. Effective management is an art. Management skills and competencies are vital to well-being of the family. Through the use of management tools one can attain a desired quality of life. Management principles and concepts are the tools to effective management.