Standard is a scale of measurement of values. According to Nickell and Dorsey, standards are a set of measure of values stemming from our value patterns, determining the amount and kind of interest in something and the satisfaction we receive. Standards serve as a measure or criterion for measurement of objects or ways of doing things.
There are standards that apply to a single situation or area such as standard of food or dress or conduct, etc. Standards set the limits one will accept in working towards a goal.
Classification: Individual and Group Goals :
Gross and Crandall classify standards as (1) conventional and (2) flexible.
1)Conventional Standards: Conventional standards are those that are traditional and accepted by the community at large or by a social group within it. To illustrate ‘high’ standard of cleanliness, we can take an example of cleaning and dusting furniture twice a day. This can be standard of any family. If an unexpected guest arrives and there is dust visible, the homemaker is apt to say ‘I did not dust today’.
2)Flexible standards: Flexible standards can be changed to suit different situations; they give greater freedom of choice. Adjusting family standards to changing conditions is an example of the need to have flexibility in one’s standards.
Evaluating standards is a difficult because the criteria of measurement lie in the minds of people. People regard the things of life and the satisfaction derived from them in relation to what is important to them, what they value and what they can afford.
3)Individual Standards: Individual Standard is similar to flexible standards. It is highly selective and based on the individual needs and interests of the family members. For example: it is customary to prepare special dish on the occasion of some festival; but in consultation with one or more members of the family, one may decide to change the dish or recipe. Here, the selection of special dish depends on the convenience and liking of the family member.Thus, goals, values and standards are important factor in management process.
2.4 Inter-relationship between Values, Goals and Standards:
Inter-relation between Values, Goals and Standards is given in the following examples.
Key concepts in understanding motivation within the person and the family are values and standards and the closely related concept of goals. Values are a prime motivating force in all management. Their clarification is desirable and necessary in decision making. Values may be changed or modified as the result of resources available and of choices made in management.
Goals are closely related to both values and standards in initiating management. They stew from values and are influenced by standards. Values is a dominant term. Each exerts an influence on the other two. Goals are indicators of values. For example, the goal of owning one’s home may be one expression of the value of security. Standards are specifications of values. They measure the degree of influence of a value. Standards set the limits one will accept in working towards a goal.
1. Write the concept of value.
2. Discuss the characteristic of values.
3. What are the sources of values?
4. What do you understand by the concept goal? What are the different types of goals?
5. Define standards. What are the types of standards?
6. How are goals, values and standards inter-related? Give suitable examples.
7. Write notes on:
a) intrinsic values
b) extrinsic values
c) short-term goals
d) intermediate goals
e) long-term goals
f) types of standards
8. Fill in the blanks.
a) Values are classified into two ___________ and ______________.
b) Standards are classified as ___________ and ______________.
c) The duration of time is less the achievement of ______ term goals.
9. State whether the following statement are True or False.
a) Values produce goals.
b) Values, goals and standards are separate concepts.
c) Values never help in establishing goals and standards.
d) No two individuals have the same values.
e) Flexible standard can never be changed.
f) Long term goals can be reached within a very short period of time.
g) Everyone has goals.
h) Intelligence is an intrinsic value.
10. Differentiate between:
a) Short term and long term goals.
b) Intrinsic and Extrinsic goals.
c) Conventional and flexible standards.
a) List your values.
b) Give priority wise list of your values.
c) Prepare value hierarchy pyramid by placing values in priority.
d) Relate values to goals and standards.
e) Give example of your goals, values and standards.